It is a condition that a couple cannot get pregnant even though they have regular sexual intercourse for 12 months and do not apply any protection method.

Primary infertility is a case that if no pregnancy has occurred before. Secondary infertility is a case if at least one pregnancy has occurred with or without resultant live birth before.

Male infertility occurs mostly due to conditions such as low sperm concentration, no sperm in the semen (azoospermia), movement and deformities, and high DNA damage. However, molecular mechanisms limiting sperm development in the spermatogenesis process or mechanisms preventing oocyte activation following fertilization are among the factors that walk over so many male factors and prevent spouses from having a baby.

Male infertility

Male infertility is due to many reasons. Sperm production disorders, obstruction in sperm ducts, the presence of antibodies to sperm, testicular trauma, hormonal disorders, anatomical problems, varicocele, previous diseases, infections and some medications can lead to infertility. For whatever reason, it is not easy to overcome infertility. Many infertile men feel incomplete and unhappy. Some think that he has lost his manhood. These feelings are normal and the way to overcome it is to communicate with other people. Infertile couples should support each other to overcome these problems. It should be remembered that 90% of infertility causes can be treated and there are many treatment options.

Causes of male infertility
  • Testicular trauma
  • Mumps
  • Excessive heat exposure
  • Radiation and environmental toxins
  • Alcohol, drugs and drugs
  • Systemic drugs
Anatomical disorders
  • Hypospadias
  • retrograde ejaculation
  • vas deferens obstruction (cystic fibrosis)
Genetic causes
  • Y chromosome microdeletions (Yq AZFa, AZFb and AZFc (DAZ) region deletions occur in 7-10% of oligospermic men.)
  • Congenital vas deferens absence with cystic fibrosis
  • Klinefelter syndrome (1/500 men)
  • LH and FSH receptor mutations

Causes of Female Infertility

Due to the complex structure and functions of the female genital system, there are many reasons that can prevent pregnancy. These causes are generally causes of ovulation, cervical problems (infection, tumor, lack of secretion), problems with the uterus (malformations, myomas), tube diseases (congestion, adhesion) and endometriosis, immune problems, reproductive organs disorders, psychological and some other troubles like sexual problems.

Some of these reasons are common.


These are non-cancerous formations originating from the muscular layer of the uterus. They can be of different numbers, sizes and shapes. While it can often be seen in women of childbearing age, they usually do not cause any complaints. However, depending on their size, number and location, they can prevent the formation of pregnancy by affecting the inner cavity of the uterus and may lead to miscarriages in the pregnancies formed. In the evaluation to be made before assisted reproductive techniques, women should definitely be evaluated in terms of myomas. When necessary, treatments for these may need to be planned first.


It is a disease that develops and functions in another part from the uterus and the reason isbecause of the tissue that forms the inner membrane of the uterus is without endometriosis. The functioning of this ectopic tissue which does not settle where it should be during each menstrual period leads to the development of cysts. This can cause pain and lead to infertility. Some of the other substances that this tissue can cause is ovulation disorders, ovarian dysfunction and pregnancy problems.

Endometriosis is a disease that can be treated by medical or surgical methods. To plan the treatment of a women with infertile endometriosis which has a child request should be done very carefully in terms of treatment success.

Ovarian cysts

These are the formations that occur in ovules as vesicles filled with fluid.

It is very common for the women of child bringing age and most of them are non-cancerous formations. They can disrupt ovulation and cause obstructive effects which can affect fertility. The conditions that is important in this case arte ovarian cysts size and location.

They should be evaluated in terms of infertility treatment. There may be a chance of medical treatment, but in some cases, the cyst content may need to be aspirated or removed as a whole. It is important to evaluate all kinds of treatment options together with the infertility treatment to be selected in order to plan the treatment of the patient in a healthier way.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a clinical condition characterized by menstrual irregularity, obesity, increased skin acne (acne) and increased male pattern hair growth, disruption of hormone balance and controlling FHS and LH. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition associated with some other endocrine diseases. Patients should be carefully evaluated in terms of diabetes because they show insulin resistance. Women with polycystic ovarian disease are at risk for infertility due to ovulation problems underlying in the disease.

Premature ovarian failure
Pelvic adhesions (adhesions)

It is defined as the occurrence of menopause before the age of 40 generally.

Fibrotic tissue and scar tissues occurring around the ovary tubes and uterus are called pelvic adhesions. Pelvic inflammatory disease is sexually transmitted diseases. In addition appendicitis can lead to pelvic adhesions in cases such as rupture, endometriosis. Pelvic adhesions may lead to infertility by causing disruption of tubing after the ovulation catching and directing it into the uterus for fertilization. Pelvic adhesions can be reopened with both open and closed surgical methods.